Sexual Self Schema (SSS-Female)                         Measure          Scoring

  Sexual self-schemas are cognitive generalizations about sexual aspects of oneself which guide sexual behavior. They are derived from past experiences, manifest themselves in current sexual experiences, and are influential in processing sexually relevant social information. The Sexual Self-Schema (SSS-Female; Andersen & Cyranowski, 1994) contains 26 trait adjectives (e.g. cautious, loving, open-minded, experienced) that are self-rated from 0 = not at all descriptive of me to 6 = very descriptive of me. Factor analytic studies revealed that the items tap three dimensions: (1) passionate/romantic, (2) open/direct, and (3) embarrassed/conservative. The measure predicts a wide range of sexual attitudes, behaviors, responses, and cognitions (Cyranowski & Andersen, 1998; Cyranowski, Aarestad, & Andersen, 1999). It is not contaminated by social desirability or negative affect biases. Process studies indicate that respondents are unaware that a sexual construct is being assessed.

Original articles:

Andersen, B.L., & Cyranowski, J.C. (1994). Women's sexual self schema. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 1079-1100.

Cyranowski, J. M., & Andersen, B. L. (2000). Evidence of self-schematic cognitive processing in women with differing sexual self-views. Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, 19(4), 519-543.

Examples of studies in which the SSS-Female has been used:

Andersen, B. L., Woods, X. A., & Copeland, L. J. (1997). Sexual self-schema and sexual morbidity among gynecologic cancer survivors. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65(2), 221-229.

Cyranowski, J. M., & Andersen, B. L. (1998). Schemas, sexuality, and romantic attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(5), 1364-1379.

Cyranowski, J. M., Aarestad, S. L., & Andersen, B. L. (1999). The role of sexual self-schema in a diathesis-stress model of sexual dysfunction. Applied & Preventive Psychology, 8(3), 217-228.

Yurek, D., Farrar, W., & Andersen, B. L. (2000). Breast cancer surgery: Comparing surgical groups and determining individual differences in postoperative sexuality and body change stress. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(4), 697-709.

Reissing, E. D., Binik, Y. M., Khalif, S., Cohen, D., & Amsel, R. (2003). Etiological correlates of vaginismus: Sexual and physical abuse, sexual knowledge, sexual self-schema, and relationship adjustment. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 29(1), 47-59.

Scott, J. L., Halford, W. K., & Ward, B. G. (2004). United we stand? The effects of a couple-coping intervention on adjustment to early stage breast or gynecological cancer. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72(6), 1122-1135.

Impett, E. A., & Tolman, D. L. (2006). Late adolescent girls’ sexual experiences and sexual satisfaction. Journal of Adolescent Research, 21(6), 628-646.

 

Sexual Self Schema (SSS-Male)                          Measure          Scoring

Sexual self-schemas are cognitive generalizations about sexual aspects of oneself which guide sexual behavior. They are derived from past experiences, manifest themselves in current sexual experiences, and are influential in processing sexually relevant social information. The Sexual Self-Schema (SSS-Male; Andersen, Cyranowski, & Espindle, 1999) contains 27 sexual trait adjectives (e.g., conservative, soft-hearted, direct, open-minded) that are self-rated from 0 = not at all descriptive of me to 6 = very descriptive of me. Factor analytic studies revealed that the items tap three dimensions: (1) passionate/loving, (2) powerful/aggressive, and (3) open minded/liberal. Consistent with the investigators' schema research with women, these data substantiate the importance of cognitive representations of sexuality. The measure predicts a wide range of sexual attitudes, behaviors, responses, and cognitions and is not contaminated by social desirability or negative affect biases. Process studies indicate that respondents are unaware that a sexual construct is being assessed.

Original article: 

Andersen, B.L., Cyranowski, J.C., & Espindle, D. (1999). Men's sexual self schema. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 645-661.

Examples of studies in which the SSS-Male has been used:

Cyranowski, J. M., Aarestad, S. L., & Andersen, B. L. (1999). The role of sexual self-schema in a diathesis-stress model of sexual dysfunction. Applied & Preventive Psychology, 8(3), 217-228.

Jenkins, R., Schover, L. R., Fouladi, R. T., Warneke, C., Neese, L., Klein, E. A., Kupelian, P. (2004). Sexuality and health-related quality of life after prostate cancer in African-American and white men treated for localized disease. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 30(2), 79-93.

Reichert, T., La Tour, M. S., & Jooyoung, K. (2007). Assessing the influence of gender and sexual self-schema on affective responses to sexual content in advertising. Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 29(2), 63-77.

 

Breast-Impact of Treatment Scale (BITS)                    Measure          Scoring

The Breast-Impact of Treatment Scale (BITS; Frierson, Thiel, & Andersen, 2006) measures stress with physical body changes.  Body change stress is the subjective psychological stress that accompanies women's negative and distressing thoughts, emotions, and behaviors resulting from breast cancer and breast surgeries.  Body change stress manifests with posttraumatic stress-like symptoms.  The BITS may be useful in documenting the effectiveness of psychological interventions offered to assist women with significant distress about their body changes. (Note: investigators may choose to re-word the item stems so that they are not breast specific.) It may be particularly useful to evaluate cognitive behavioral therapies, as it assesses thoughts and behaviors common to women's stress reactions.

Original article:

Frierson, G. M., Thiel, D. L., & Andersen, B. L. (2006). Body change stress for women with breast cancer: The Breast-Impact of Treatment Scale. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 32(1), 77-81.

Examples of articles in which the BITS has been used:

Carpenter, K. M., Andersen, B. L., Fowler, J. M., & Maxwell, G. L. (2009). Sexual self schema as a moderator of sexual and psychological outcomes for gynecologic cancer survivors. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38, 828-841.

Levin, A. O., Carpenter, K. M., Fowler, J. M., Brothers, B. M., Andersen, B. L., & Maxwell, G. L. (2010). Sexual morbidity associated with poorer psychological adjustment among gynecological cancer survivors. International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, 20(3), 461-470.

Denewer, A., Farouk, O., Kotb, S., Setit, A., Abd El-khalek, S., & Shetiwy, M. (2012). Quality of life among Egyptian women with breast cancer after sparing mastectomy and immediate autologous breast reconstruction: A comparative study. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 133(2), 537-544.

Zainal, N. Z., Shuib, N., Bustam, A. Z., Sabki, Z. A., & Guan, N. C. (2013). Reliability and validity of the Malay Version of the Breast- Impact of Treatment Scale (MVBITS) in breast cancer women undergoing chemotherapy. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 14(1), 463-468.

 

Meaning in Life Scale (MiLS)                                      Measure          Scoring

Meaning in life is a multidimensional construct that refers to the value and purpose of life, important life goals, and for some, spirituality.  We developed a measure of meaning in life derived from this conceptualization and synthesis of relevant theoretical and empirical traditions.  Two samples, all cancer patients, provided data for scale development and psychometric study.  Four factors emerged: Harmony and Peace, assessing feelings of well-being such as comfort, harmony, and peace; Life Perspective, Purpose, and Goals, assessing feelings of satisfaction and understanding of the self and one’s future; Confusion and Lessened Meaning, assessing loss of meaning and value in life; and Benefits of Spirituality, assessing levels of strength and comfort found in spiritual beliefs.  The MiLS offers a theoretically based and psychometrically sound assessment of meaning in life suitable for use with cancer patients. 

Original article:

Jim, H. S., Purnell, J. Q., Richardson, S. A., Golden-Kreutz, D. M., & Andersen, B. L. (2006). Measuring meaning in life following cancer. Quality of Life Research, 15(8), 1355-1371.

Examples of studies in which the MiLS has been used:

Jim, H. S., & Andersen, B. L. (2007). Meaning in life mediates the relationship between social and physical functioning and distress in cancer survivors. British Journal of Health Psychology, 12(3), 363-381.

Simonelli, L. E., Fowler, J. M., Maxwell, G. L., & Andersen, B. L. (2008). Physical sequelae and depressive symptoms in gynecologic cancer survivors: Meaning in life as a mediator. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 35(3), 275-284.

 

Permission:
Permission for use of scales is not necessary when use is for academic research or educational purposes.

If you need written permission, please prepare a letter with a line for signature, along with a self-addressed and stamped envelope.
Send c/o Dr. Barbara L. Andersen at the address listed below.